Kindle Ebook par Miro Kovac ☆ La France, la création du royaume «yougoslave» et la question croate, 1914-1929 ☆ achats en ligne ↠ Télécharger

tbooks.tk

Note de lecture parue dans Relations internationales, numro 111, automne 2002 , p 413 415 par Reno Lukic,Professeur agrg au Dpartement d histoire de l Universit de Laval La prsente monographie est issue d une these de doctorat, soutenue par Miro Kovac a la Sorbonne en 1999 La these tait dirige par le professeur Jean Claude Allain Elle reprsente un travail de pionnier en ce qui a trait a l histoire politique de la Croatie aux XIXe et XXe siecles Nous pensons que ce livre opere un dplacement du regard de l historien a partir d un objet de recherche qui a monopolis pendant des dcennies les recherches historiques, a savoir la Yougoslavie, vers ses composantes, soit les tats indpendants issus de la dsintgration de la fdration L objectif principal de cette monographie est de rpondre a la question suivante Pourquoi, au lendemain de la Premiere Guerre mondiale, alors que le principe des nationalits s tait impos a la Confrence de paix a Versailles et que les conditions pour l mancipation politique des Croates par un couplage avec la France rpublicaine tait thoriquement revenues , la France a t elle choisi la Serbie comme son allie stratgique privilgie dans les Balkans La rponse a cette question est apporte dans la troisieme partie du livre La France et le Royaume SHS face a la question croate 1918 1929 et nous y reviendrons La premiere partie du livre est consacre aux origines historiques des Croates et a leur place en Europe centrale Les premiers chapitres prsentent l histoire politique des Croates du Moyen ge jusqu a la Premiere Guerre mondiale Les themes suivants sont abords l union politique avec les Magyars, l arrive des Ottomans et l association des Croates a la maison des Habsbourg Un accent particulier est mis par l auteur sur la formation au XIXe siecle de deux idologies politico nationales concurrentes, a savoir le croatisme et le yougoslavisme , qui ont influenc d une maniere dcisive l histoire politique des Croates durant cette priode Le croatisme , incarn par Ante Starcevic, son fondateur, tait une idologie politique ayant pris forme au XIXe et qui prvoyait la cration d un tat indpendant pour les Croates Cependant, c est l adoption du yougoslavisme qui a influenc l histoire politique des Croates au XXe siecle La victoire du yougoslavisme au sein des lites politiques croates, a la veille de la Premiere Guerre mondiale, a ouvert la voie a la cration du Royaume des Serbes, Croates et Slovenes cr en 1918 Le dsenchantement des Croates apres 74 ans de vie commune avec les Serbes dans le cadre des tats yougoslaves de la monarchie a la rpublique et le retour des Croates au croatisme en 1990 1991, l idologie politique a la base des revendications des lites politiques croates visant la cration d un tat nation apres la fin de la division de l Europe en 1989 1990, furent les points de ralliement de la majorit des Croates qui refusaient de vivre au sein d un tat multinational domin par les Serbes Le projet politique de Starcevic, adapt aux nouvelles circonstances historiques, a t repris par le prsident Tudjman et son parti, le HDZ, pour loigner dfinitivement la Croatie du yougoslavisme qui venait de subir un coup mortel de la part du nationalisme ethnique serbe personnalis par Slobodan Milosevic La deuxieme partie du livre couvre la priode de la Premiere Guerre mondiale durant laquelle une intense activit diplomatique a t mene par des hommes politiques croates, notamment Frane Supilo et Ante Trumbic, dans l objectif de trouver un terrain d entente avec le prsident du Conseil serbe, Nikola Pasic, en vue de crer un tat runissant les Slaves du Sud Cette partie du livre examine en dtail l attitude des principaux gouvernements allis, en particulier celui de la France, vis a vis du futur tat des Slaves du Sud La troisieme partie du livre, a mon avis la plus originale, explique les raisons qui ont empech la ralisation de la rencontre historique entre les Franais et les Croates La France, en suivant ses objectifs politiques en Europe Centrale qui visaient a affaiblir l hgmonie de la Monarchie austro hongroise, avait pouss dans un premier temps les Hongrois, les Serbes et les Croates a s unir politiquement pour ensuite choisir la Serbie comme son allie principale dans la rgion En dfinitive, les Croates ne faisaient pas le poids politiquement face a la Serbie qui, depuis le Congres de Berlin, tait dja une puissance rgionale L appui que la France a donn a l Italie, galement son allie dans la rgion, au dtriment des revendications des Croates dans l affaire de la ville de Fiume, a rendu un partenariat politique entre la France et les Croates peu probable p 363 Cette partie du livre s appuie presque entierement sur les documents diplomatiques franais Nous apprenons entre autres que la France a choisi la Serbie en tant qu allie privilgie dans les Balkans parce que, selon les lites politiques franaises de l poque, il incombait aux Serbes de dgermaniser p 360 les peuples du Royaume des Serbes, Croates et Slovenes, qui avaient vcu pendant des siecles en Autriche Hongrie les Croates et Slovenes Il est intressant de constater que les memes objectifs qui ont favoris le rapprochement franco serbe durant les annes 1920 et 1930, a savoir une orientation anti germanique du Royaume des Serbes, des Croates et Slovenes, la co fraternit d armes entre Serbes et Franais durant la Grande Guerre, la croyance en la valeur de l arme serbe ainsi que le penchant franais pour le centralisme p 367 , taient toujours prsents en 1990 91 au moment de la dsintgration de la Yougoslavie En cette anne fatidique pour la Yougoslavie, la France croyait a tort que l Allemagne, en reconnaissant l indpendance de la Croatie et de la Slovnie au mois de dcembre 1991, dsirait se tailler une sphere d influence dans les Balkans au dtriment des intrets de la France Ce fut certainement la perception du prsident franais Franois Mitterrand qui ne cacha jamais son aversion envers les Croates et son admiration pour les Serbes Cette monographie est riche et tres bien documente Une grande partie de la recherche a t effectue a partir des Archives diplomatiques du Ministere franais des Affaires trangeres ADMAE et du Service historique de l arme de terre SHAT Ce livre avec celui de Paul Garde 1 , reprsente, selon nous, la meilleure introduction en langue franaise de l histoire de la Croatie et de la Yougoslavie aux XIXe et XXe siecles 1 Paul GARDE, Vie et mort de la Yougoslavie, Paris, Fayard, 2000 3e dition , 480 p The violent break up of the former Yugoslavia attracted substantial international attention to this space Many books about its history, geography, national myths, intervention of great powers in this space, etc have been published during the last decade It seems hard to come up with something new, but Miro Kovac managed to do so His book, written in French being in fact the author s Ph.D thesis, defended in Sorbonne in 1999 explores a still underresearched historical event the role of France in the creation of the first Yugoslavia and the Croatian position towards the role of France Although in the title the author mentions only the years 1914 29, the book is by no means restricted to this historical period On the contrary, roughly one third of the book the first part The Croatian condition before WWI includes 3 chapters out of a total of 9 deals with the period before 1914 The author provides a good historical background for the reader who are not familiar with the topic Kovac begins with the origins of the Croats, continues with the formation of the first medieval Croat state until the kingdom of Tomislav and analyzes the decline of the Croatian feudal state that led to its union with the Hungarian Crown in 1102 The author constantly reminds the reader that during the union with Hungary and later with the Habsburgs the autonomy, institutions and rights of the Croatian people were nevertheless preserved In this part, Kovac pays special attention to historical contacts between Serbs and Croats, as well as to the political movements in Croatia after the Nagodba the compromise with Hungary in 1868 Of interest is the author s analysis of the pro Yugoslav political orientation of the majority of Croatian politicians largely determined, in his opinion, by the ethnical heterogeneity of the Croat lands He demonstrates how at the time the Croatian demands were assimilated to those of others South Slavs living in Austria Hungary and ultimately aspiring to the creation of a larger South Slav political entity either inside the Double Monarchy, as the majority saw it feasible, or outside The second part of the book analyzes the diplomatic ballet of the Croats inexile especially Ante Trumbic and Frano Supilo , the Serbian government and the allied governments that led to the creation of the first Yugoslavia called between 1918 29 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes Kovac explains convincingly why the JO the Yugoslav Committee , created in Paris in April 1915, was not recognized as a government in exile by the Entente It was not only the strong and open opposition of Italy because of its territorial claims to Istria and Dalmatia , but also the discrete game of the government of Serbia, unwilling to share the benefits of the future victory and opposing any federal arrangement for the future South Slav state Despite some diplomatic successes, such as the Geneva Declaration 9 November 1918 , signed by the JO and the Serbian PM, Nikola Pasic, the Serbian point of view finally prevailed in the internal organization of the new state The third part of the book covers the period between December 1918 and January 1929 In Croatia the initial enthusiasm for the liberation from Austria Hungary passed very quickly after the loss of Istria, Rijeka and Zadar and the adoption of the Vidovdan Constitution 1921 , which transformed the Kingdom SHS in a hyper centralized state and stripped the Croats of their historical political rights the autonomy they have enjoyed before The author considers that the Kingdom SHS was rather a Greater Serbia than a common state for all South Slav people The Croats were certainly disappointed with the new state of affairs and the expression of this dissatisfaction was the gathering of most Croats behind the peasant party and its leader Stjepan Radic Radic s political activity between 1918 28 is particularly interesting and presented in great detail In an objective manner, Kovac shows his successes and his mistakes, his adventures in 1925 he passed in a few months from the jail to the Cabinet and his political thinking Trying different tactics in order to obtain a federal solution for the SHS Kingdom boycott of the Belgrade Parliament, various opposition alliances, cooperation with the government, appeals for foreign help, etc Radic was finally assassinated mortally wounded together with other Croatian MPs during a session of Belgrade Skupstina His death in the summer of 1928 marks the end of hopes for a parliamentary democracy in the SHS Kingdom in January 1929, King Aleksandar proclaimed the royal dictatorship Kovac s book is mostly interesting for the analysis of the French position during the war and after Kovac argues that the permanent backing of la France officielle encouraged Belgrade to pursue its centralist policies until the very end France wrongly believed that hyper centralization would finally bring internal stability to its Balkan ally The unrest in the provinces attached to the Kingdom after the war could convince neither France nor Belgrade about the necessity of change, which proved to be a fatal error in the eve of the WW II I will conclude by noting that Kovac s book is a good and useful lecture The author uses many mostly French archive sources, the book being obviously the result of a serious and systematic research The main shortcoming would be Kovac s sometimes passionate approach nevertheless this does not imply the loss of scientific character and his rather difficult style, which makes the book a bit hard to read by non academics Nevertheless, these criticisms are minor compared to the achievement of providing a good and detailed study that can be recommend to all those interested in the problem La France airship Wikipedia The La France was a French Army non rigid airship launched by Charles Renard and Arthur Constantin Krebs on August , Collaborating with Charles Renard, Arthur Constantin Krebs piloted the first fully controlled free flight with the La France Leon La gographie de la France YouTube Nov , Dcouvrez mes autres vidos sur ma chaine Voici une vido qui vous apprendra l essentiel de la gographie de la France ps cette vido a t fait avec P Dcouvrez mes autres vidos sur ma chaine Voici une vido qui vous apprendra l essentiel de la gographie de la France La France Home Facebook La France and Ben, in particular were awesome on the phone today when a bunch of called for some Trashy Diva So pleasant and patient I hope La France IMDb In France in the darkest days of the Great War Camille receives an alarming letter from her soldier boyfriend Disguising herself as a man she sets off to try and find him As she lives near the Western Fromt she hooks up with a passing group of French soldiers without too much trouble What does Vive la France Mean Patriotism in French Vive la France translates as hurray for France , or sometimes as long live France , depending on the context The French use many symbols and expressions to show their patriotism Meaning of Vive la France French Expression La France Home Facebook La France, Tampa, FL K likes Dejavu Garmenture Men s and Women s Clothing and Accessories from Past and Present La France MK Wikipedia The La France MK is a M rifle modified by the company La France Specialties, which among with other firearm related activities, convert common military weapons into compact configurations typically for law enforcement and special forces use La France Industries The La France Plant is a premiere upholstery fabric weaver America s most oustanding plush and flat upholstery fabric weaver with custom design capabilities In addition, we produce fabric for napery, blankets, decorative home furnishings, industrial and apparel France La France inattendue par celles et ceux qui la Quel territoire de la plante France allez vous explorer aujourd hui Des Alpes Mont Blanc la Normandie, de la Provence au Val de Loire, en passant par Paris et Tahiti, vous avez plus de trente destinations dcouvrir La France Dry Cleaners La France Dry Cleaners Family Owned and Operated Since Southwest Florida s Most Trusted Name in Dry Cleaning Free Pickup Delivery Throughout Most of Southwest Florida