Télécharger ☆ L'État-providence en Europe - Performance et dumping social Ebook par ô Lef bvre Mathieu ↠

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Extrait de l introduction Voici quelques brves de comptoir que l on pourrait entendre Paris ou Berlin dans un bistro populaire comme la buvette du Parlement Le style changerait mais pas le contenu Nous avons la meilleure protection sociale du monde L extension de quinze vingt sept pays de l Union europenne a enlaidi notre paysage social Avec l ouverture des frontires, nos tats providence se doivent d tre moins gnreux pour ne pas attirer toute la misre du monde Une chasse au gaspi dtermine permettrait d obtenir la mme protection sociale avec la moiti des dpenses sociales Ces propos peuvent connatre de nombreuses variantes Leurs correspondent d ailleurs des affirmations qui en prennent le contre pied Nous avons la pire protection sociale Il est clair que sur le sujet on entend tout et son contraire, ce qui tmoigne d absence d talon permettant de mesurer la qualit et la performance de la protection sociale L ambition de cet opuscule est prcisment de fournir une mesure de la performance des tats providence Pour des questions de donnes, mais aussi parce que c est l que nous vivons et que le dbat est le plus vif, nous nous limiterons l Europe Cette mesure devrait nous permettre de comparer les performances de diffrents pays et d en tudier l volution dans le temps Ces indicateurs de performance apportent une rponse la question d un ventuel dumping social et celle de l impact de l extension de l Union europenne vingt sept membres et bientt davantage Mais d abord qu entendons nous par tat providence Nous utiliserons les expressions d tat providence et de protection sociale de faon interchangeable Ce sont des expressions passe partout qu il n est pas facile de dfinir L conomiste britannique A Atkinson cherchait dfinir le concept d assurance sociale, la comparait un lphant pour lequel il n y a pas de bonne dfinition mais que l on reconnat ds que l on en voit un Ainsi en va t il de l tat providence que l on repre aux interventions tatiques visant assurer un certain niveau de scurit et de bien tre l ensemble de la population Il s agit, titre d illustration, des politiques de sant, d ducation, de lutte contre la prcarit ou de soutien l emploi Cela dcoule de la reconnaissance par l tat de sa responsabilit en matire de gestion des risques directement relis la vie en socit Ces interventions prennent la forme de dpenses sociales, d ducation publique et d assurance maladie mais aussi de lgislations sociales On associe souvent l origine de l tat providence aux politiques d assurance sociale de Bismarck Allemagne et aux politiques d assistance sociale de Bevendge Grande Bretagne Il a vraiment pris son essor aprs la Seconde Guerre mondiale Au cours des annes 1980, un important mouvement de remise en question de cette forme de rgulation sociale s est tendu au sein des pays occidentaux Margaret Thatcher, en Grande Bretagne, et Ronald Reagan, aux tats Unis, reprsentent probablement les figures dominantes de ce mouvement de rforme Depuis lors, les difficults budgtaires sont venues s ajouter la contestation librale pour crer ce qu il est convenu d appeler la crise de l tat providence Aujourd hui plus que jamais, nous avons besoin de disposer de bons indicateurs de performance qui puissent tre compars dans le temps et entre pays et rpondre la question clef l tat providence est il vraiment en crise Mais comment dfinir la performance de l tat providence Dans la mesure o il peut tre apprhend comme une organisation poursuivant diffrents objectifs, sa performance doit tre value par la mesure dans laquelle il remplit les objectifs qui lui sont assigns par l autorit de tutelle, en l occurrence l tat ou plutt l ensemble des citoyens Comme les objectifs sont multiples, se pose le problme de l agrgation en un seul indicateur de performance Ce problme peut tre rsolu par le recours au concept de frontire des meilleures pratiques Cette frontire est construite en prenant appui sur les pays les plus performants Comme on le verra plus loin, la performance d un tat providence sera mesure par sa capacit se rapprocher de cette frontire.Cet opuscule propose une mesure de la performance des tats providence europens fonde sur la manire dont ils traitent des ingalits sociales, de sant, demploi et dducation Cette mesure permet de comparer la performance des pays de lEurope des quinze avec celle des douze nouveaux membres elle donne aussi la possibilit de tester lhypothse dun ventuel dumping social luvre dans ces pays enfin elle peut tre utilise pour mieux apprhender la faon dont les diffrents tats europens prennent en charge les personnes ges Sans surprise, les pays nordiques prsentent les meilleurs scores En revanche, lentre des douze nouveaux membres a eu un effet contrast Certains, telles la Rpublique Tchque ou la Slovnie, font aussi bien que les meilleurs de lEurope des quinze, alors que dautres, la Roumanie et la Bulgarie en particulier, sont la trane On ny observe pas de dumping social et, en dpit de laugmentation du taux de dpendance, le bien tre des personnes ges ny a pas progress au cours de la dernire dcennie. 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