↠ Encyclopédie des orchidées tropicales ↠ PDF par ☆ Pascal Descourvieres Romance

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Extrait de l introduction Les orchid es, une famille remarquable Une famille nombreuse Parmi les plantes actuelles, les orchid es forment la famille qui compte le plus d esp ces Ainsi, en 1986, on en signalait 19 000 Aujourd hui, ce chiffre est pass au moins 25 000 esp ces 35 000 selon certains auteurs regroup es en 850 genres valides En effet, on d couvre chaque ann e entre 100 et 200 nouvelles esp ces, en particulier sous les tropiques Les membres de la famille des orchid es appel e aussi Orchidaceae en botanique, sont r partis dans tous les milieux continentaux sauf les d serts les plus secs et les zones polaires o le sol ne d g le jamais Elles sont donc absentes du continent Antarctique, de l extr me Nord de la Sib rie, de l extr me Nord du Canada et de la plus grande partie du Groenland A ce jour, on ne conna t aucune esp ce d orchid e strictement aquatique que ce soit en eau de mer, ou m me en eau douce m me si certaines esp ces terrestres vivent les racines dans des sols gorg s d eau douce, par exemple dans les tourbi res, tandis que d autres sont parfois immerg es temporairement lors des crues des rivi res On estime que 75 % des esp ces d orchid es vivent sur les arbres des for ts tropicales Les r gions les plus riches en esp ces sont donc et sans surprise, des r gions la fois tropicales humides ou quatoriales, fortement bois es et avec un fort d nivel qui cr e un gradient de temp ratures C est le cas de nombreux pays d Am rique latine P rou, quateur, Colombie , mais aussi de la Nouvelle Guin e, de Born o, etc A titre de comparaison, la France m tropolitaine poss de 150 esp ces d orchid es, tandis que la Martinique en compte 80, pour un territoire 500 fois plus petit Quelques dates cl La premi re mention d une orchid e dans les crits occidentaux remonte Th ophraste 372 287 av J C , qui d crivit de nombreuses plantes m diterran ennes dont quelques orchid es En Chine, le Cymbidium ensifolium fut cultiv pour le plaisir des yeux depuis fort longtemps comme l attestent de nombreux dessins anciens, mais aussi des crits Ainsi, Confucius 551 479 av J C le mentionna dans certains de ses textes Il faut attendre le milieu du XVIIIe si cle pour que les orchid es commencent tre tudi es scientifiquement et nomm es avec une certaine rigueur Les voyages d exploration commen aient ramener des plantes tropicales qui aiguis rent la curiosit des botanistes Ainsi, Linn , en 1753, mentionna 69 esp ces d orchid es qu il regroupa dans les genres Orchis, Satyrium, Serapias, Limodorum, Cypripedium et Epidendrum Presque toutes les orchid es tropicales connues cette poque furent d crites dans le genre Epidendrum Bien entendu, au fur et mesure que les connaissances botaniques se consolid rent, de nombreuses esp ces furent enlev es de ce genre pour entrer dans des genres nouveaux Au XIXe si cle, la mise en culture d une multitude d esp ces tropicales, surtout en Angleterre, marque la naissance de l orchidophilie Les nombreux travaux botaniques permirent de mieux conna tre les orchid es On peut citer, bien s r, les travaux de Darwin sur la pollinisation des orchid es, ceux de Swartz et Lindley non seulement sur la classification, mais aussi pour la nomination d esp ces nouvelles La France n est pas en reste Ainsi, c est No l Bernard qui d couvrit au tout d but du XXe si cle, que la graine d orchid e avait besoin de la pr sence d un champignon filamenteux pour germer puis se d velopper Il entreprit des exp riences poursuivies par l Am ricain Lewis Knudson pour obtenir la germination des graines sans le champignon, en milieu sucr Le professeur Morel et les tablissements Vacherot Lecoufle mirent au point la reproduction des orchid es non plus par des graines, mais par multiplication v g tative partir d amas de cellules pr lev es dans le bourgeon m rist me , ce qui permit, d s les ann es 70, d obtenir, partir d un seul pied d une orchid e s lectionn e, des milliers de plantes identiques la plante m re L re industrielle de l orchidophilie tait n eLe livre le plus complet sur les orchid es jamais dit en langue fran aise Premi re encyclop die en langue fran aise sur le sujet, ce livre comble une lacune dans le monde des amateurs d orchid es tropicales par l exhaustivit et l actualit des informations fournies Pascal Descourvi res y pr sente pr s de 1 000 esp ces toutes illustr es les esp ces incontournables, mais aussi les plus tonnantes et les plus spectaculaires Il pr sente chaque genre et chaque esp ce en fournissant les conseils de culture ad quats mais aussi, et c est une des originalit du livre par rapport aux encyclop dies en langue anglaises existantes, en mettant l accent sur l cologie et la pr sentation des diff rents biotopes Un ouvrage de r f rence Pascal Descouvri res cultive chez lui des orchid es depuis de nombreuses ann es Ing nieur de formation, professeur de biologie, il est vice pr sident de l Association fran aise de culture et de protection des orchid es Premi re encyclop die en langue fran aise sur le sujet, crite par un sp cialiste reconnu Des informations actuelles, pr cises et in dites cologie, milieux naturels Pr s de 1 000 esp ces et illustrations Le cadeau de fin d ann e id al pour tous les amateurs d orchid es Encyclopedia Britannica Britannica Explore the fact checked online encyclopedia from Encyclopaedia Britannica with hundreds of thousands of objective articles, biographies, videos, and images from experts Encyclopedia Wikipedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a Encyclopedia TFD Encyclopedia includes Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, Columbia Encyclopedia and many other great sources Encyclopdie Wikipedia Encyclopdie, ou dictionnaire raisonn des sciences, des arts et des mtiers English Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts , better known as Encyclopdie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between and , with later 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includes over , articles about diseases, tests, symptoms, injuries, and surgeries It also contains an extensive library of medical photographs and illustrations For information Encyclopedia of Life The Encyclopedia of Life is an unprecedented effort to gather scientific knowledge about all animal and plant life where pictures, information, facts, and mo Britannica Kids From Britannica, an online encyclopedia resource for kids in grades K with safe, fact checked, age appropriate content for homework help and learning World Book Encyclopedia Sets Classic and Spinescape Order a World Book Encyclopedia set today for your home, school or library This excellent reference source will last a lifetime to come Encyclopedia Home Facebook Encyclopedia , likes talking about this Reference information you can trust Encyclopaedia Definition of Encyclopaedia by Merriam Webster Encyclopaedia definition is Britannica English Translation of encyclopaedia for Arabic speakers Britannica Encyclopedia 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many volumes, containing articles on various topics, often arranged in alphabetical order, dealing either with the whole range of human knowledge or with one particular subject a medical encyclopedia Word Origin Encyclopdie French reference work Britannica Encyclopdie Encyclopdie French Encyclopaedia, or Classified Dictionary of Sciences, Arts, and Trades , the th century French encyclopaedia that was one of the chief works of the Philosophes, men dedicated to the advancement of science and secular thought and the new tolerance and open mindedness of Wikipedia Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia, created and edited by volunteers around the world and hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation Medical Encyclopedia MedlinePlus The ADAM Medical Encyclopedia includes over , articles about diseases, tests, symptoms, injuries, and surgeries It also contains an extensive library of medical photographs and illustrations For information Encyclopedia of Life The Encyclopedia of Life is an unprecedented effort to gather scientific knowledge about all animal and plant life where pictures, information, facts, and mo Britannica Kids From Britannica, an online encyclopedia resource for kids in grades K with safe, fact checked, age appropriate content for homework help and learning World Book Encyclopedia Sets Classic and Spinescape Order a World Book Encyclopedia set today for your home, school or library This excellent reference source will last a lifetime to come Encyclopedia Home Facebook Encyclopedia , likes talking about this Reference information you can trust Encyclopaedia Definition of Encyclopaedia by Merriam Webster Encyclopaedia definition is Britannica English Translation of encyclopaedia for Arabic speakers Britannica Encyclopedia article about encyclopaedia

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